美国总统林肯的中英文简介

2018-02-12
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文章简介:中国简体:林肯1809年2月12日出生在美国的肯塔基州,父母是没有受过教育的农民,属于一个反对奴隶制度的教会,在他年幼时即受到了这种情绪的影响.林肯的父亲用积蓄 ...

中国简体:林肯1809年2月12日出生在美国的肯塔基州,父母是没有受过教育的农民,属于一个反对奴隶制度的教会,在他年幼时即受到了这种情绪的影响。林肯的父亲用积蓄两次购买了土地,但是在相关的法律诉讼中失败而被迫放弃所有权,并于1815年移居印地安那州。

这个经历激励了林肯日后学习土地测量,并且成为律师。林肯九岁时丧母,1830年举家迁入伊利诺伊州。林肯仅受过十八个月的非正规教育,但林肯的繼母對林肯非常照顧視若己出,通过勤奋的自学,在1836年成为律师,林肯曾說若無他的繼母,便無今日的林肯。

林肯年輕時代的生活並不一帆風順,曾經十一次被雇主辭退,兩次生意失敗。林肯的妻子脾氣差不易相處,讓林肯頗為苦惱。英国语言:AbrahamLincoln(February12,1809–April15,1865)wasthe16thPresidentoftheUnitedStates,servingfromMarch1861untilhisassassinationinApril1865.

Hesuccessfullyledhiscountrythroughitsgreatestinternalcrisis,theAmericanCivilWar,preservingtheUnionandendingslavery.

Beforehiselectionin1860asthefirstRepublicanpresident,Lincolnhadbeenacountrylawyer,anIllinoisstatelegislator,amemberoftheUnitedStatesHouseofRepresentatives,andtwiceanunsuccessfulcandidateforelectiontotheU.

S.Senate.AsanoutspokenopponentoftheexpansionofslaveryintheUnitedStates,[1][2]LincolnwontheRepublicanPartynominationin1860andwaselectedpresidentlaterthatyear.

HistenureinofficewasoccupiedprimarilywiththedefeatofthesecessionistConfederateStatesofAmericaintheAmericanCivilWar.

Heintroducedmeasuresthatresultedintheabolitionofslavery,issuinghisEmancipationProclamationin1863andpromotingthepassageoftheThirteenthAmendmenttotheConstitution.

Sixdaysafterthelarge-scalesurrenderofConfederateforcesunderGeneralRobertE.

Lee,LincolnbecamethefirstAmericanpresidenttobeassassinated.Lincolncloselysupervisedthevictoriouswareffort,especiallytheselectionoftopgenerals,includingUlyssesS.

Grant.HistorianshaveconcludedthathehandledthefactionsoftheRepublicanPartywell,bringingleadersofeachfactionintohiscabinetandforcingthemtocooperate.

LincolnsuccessfullydefusedtheTrentaffair,awarscarewithBritainlatein1861.Underhisleadership,theUniontookcontroloftheborderslavestatesatthestartofthewar.

Additionally,hemanagedhisownreelectioninthe1864presidentialelection.

CopperheadsandotheropponentsofthewarcriticizedLincolnforrefusingtocompromiseontheslaveryissue.

Conversely,theRadicalRepublicans,anabolitionistfactionoftheRepublicanParty,criticizedhimformovingtooslowlyinabolishingslavery.

Evenwiththeseopponents,Lincolnsuccessfullyralliedpublicopinionthroughhisrhetoricandspeeches;hisGettysburgAddress(1863)becameaniconicsymbolofthenation‘sduty.

Atthecloseofthewar,LincolnheldamoderateviewofReconstruction,seekingtospeedilyreunitethenationthroughapolicyofgenerousreconciliation.

LincolnhasconsistentlybeenrankedbyscholarsasoneofthegreatestofallU.S.Presidents